Applications in K-12 Education


Social Interaction/Communication

  • Exchanges of thoughts, ideas, and emotions among players (Suh, Kim, & Kim, 2010)

  • Players develop leadership skills, such as recruiting, assessing, motivating, rewarding, and retaining team members (Jan & Ryu, 2011)



  • Provide the opportunity to experiment with problem solving in a safe environment (Griffith & de Freitas, 2007)

  • Make it possible for students to participate in communities of practice and develop the ways of thinking related to those communities (Shaffer, Squire, Halverson, & Gee, Dec 2001)


Experiential Learning

  • Takes place in an immersive, multi-user, 3-D environment and combines motivational strategies from commercial games with research-based learning (

  • Process of becoming a skilled player involves collaborative learning around a functional set of activities (Griffith & de Freitas, 2007)



  • River City: A virtual world for middle school science classrooms allowing students to conduct scientific investigations on an historic epidemic (

  • Rochester Castle: A virtual world for senior high school students simulating life in the middle ages (Griffiths, M.D. & de Freitas, S. 2007)

  • Atlantis Remixed: 3-D, multi-user environment that comprises both online and off-line learning activities, with a storyline inspiring a disposition towards social action. (

  • MMORPG English language instruction in a Korean school (Suh, Kim, & Kim, 2010)


The following are activities that take place in virtual environments and could also be elements of an CMORPG (Classroom Mulit-player Online Role Playing Game)

  • Flying above a cityscape to see how a city is designed and use of green space (Griffith & de Freitas, 2007)

  • Manipulating financial markets and observing the outcome(Griffith & de Freitas, 2007)

  • Experiencing a social situation as another race or gender (Griffith & de Freitas, 2007)

  • Exploring history within a reconstructed archeological site (Neamtu, C., Comes, R., Mateescu, R., Rares, G., & Daniel, F., 2012)

  • Witnessing Kristallnacht, the Progroms of 1938 (US Holocaust Memorial Museum,


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